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midsommar 是一部在瑞典拍摄的时间太长,最终没有连贯性的美国恐怖电影。 这是跨文化合作的成果。 电影的导演阿里·阿斯特(Ari Aster)是来自纽约市的犹太人,他出生于1986年,从小就着迷于恐怖电影。 Aster认为这部电影是个人的宣泄,因为它使他将对恐怖片的迷恋与与女友分手的经历结合在一起,这使他感到“世界末日就在世界末日”。 因此,从Aster的角度来看, midsommar 是“错误的愿望实现幻想”,其中性行为导致恐怖。 但Aster很快补充道:“电影中没有人是我前女友的代理人。 这不是我想对前任做的事情,但有一种感觉,您想放纵自己和生活的那一部分,并继续前进,因为那很痛苦。”

理解不连贯性的关键是主角的名字,名字叫“基督徒”。 这个名字充满了意义,但鉴于导演的处理方式,最终还是让人难以理解。 阿斯特(Aster)在名称中的用法说明 midsommar 不比他在电影中的戏剧化要好。 根据阿斯特(Aster)的说法,“基督徒和他的朋友们”没有意识到“他们都走进了一部民俗恐怖片,而这正是电影的目标。 但对于[基督徒女友]丹妮(Dani)而言,最后人们会发现,这部电影实际上只是她的童话。”

如果您仍然处于黑暗中,也不要感到难过,因为这部电影也没有这个词的意义。 “基督徒”是一群20多岁的人类学专业学生之一,他们谈论很多性爱问题,但对他的行为却不是基督徒,甚至在犹太电影导演所钟爱的虚伪意义上也是如此。 克里斯蒂安的朋友们大部分时间都花在了 midsommar 试图说服他与女友丹妮分手。 克里斯汀(Christian)和他的伙伴生活在一个明显的后基督教世界中,因此,在后基督教时代,这部电影真正意义上的唯一遗迹是主人公的名字。 主角仅是基督教徒的名字。 他的名字与他的行为无关。 他不是一个权威人物。 他是人类学专业的研究生,他“不知道自己的论文是什么。” [2]

这部电影的开头是冬天冬天在Haelsingland的瑞典树林的场景,然后切入明尼苏达州郊区的一所房子。 “邻居非常安静,”布鲁克林的一名研究生丹妮(Dani)在收到姐姐发来的一封深色电子邮件后为她的家人感到担忧,她的妹妹写道:“我再也不能了–一切都变黑了–妈妈爸爸也要来再见。” 丹妮担心会发生不好的事情,称其男友为“基督徒”,他宣布自己“只吸了一些树脂”,并介绍了整个电影其余部分将继续使用的吸毒主题。 在达尼(Dani)需要时,克里斯蒂安(Christian)在情感上无法获得。

“基督徒”对达妮和她的情感上有需要的姐姐都表现出缺乏关注,后者即将自杀(其中包括谋杀父母)也被视为“另一种明显的关注手段”。3基督徒变得过于沉迷于自我。关心别人,除了他自己。 因此,当丹妮对他说:“我真的很幸运能拥有你”,他回答说:“我也是。” 丹妮然后说:“我爱你”,基督教徒回答道:“我也是如此。” 克里斯汀(Christian)正在寻找与丹妮(Dani)看起来无性关系的出路。 在纽约的一家披萨店与20多岁的研究生伙伴会面后,克里斯蒂安被告知,他需要“找到一些真正喜欢性爱的新小鸡”。 当人类学的同伴乔什(Josh)提出克里斯蒂安(Christian)未完成的博士学位时,女服务员给克里斯蒂安(Christian)诱人的微笑,随后当丹妮(Dani)打电话说她姐姐自杀并带着父母自杀时,对这些性可能性的讨论才得以中断。 ,用车库里两辆汽车的一氧化碳填充他们的房子。 回到达尼(Dani)的公寓时,克里斯汀(Christian)抱着哭泣的女友,而他“凝视着太空,想象着自己被束缚的未来”。 他看上去被困住了。” 我们被告知,在这对夫妇“沉重的雪”后面的窗口中,“正在黑真空中肆虐”。

为了理解 midsommar 我们必须走出一部很难讲述自己故事的电影。 像大多数好莱坞电影一样, 仲夏 是翻拍。 Aster将其描述为“ 异教徒痛苦的心痛检查 现代浪漫。” 1973年的电影 异教徒 与事情恶化无关。 恰恰相反,这是一个男人的故事,他认为性应该保留给婚姻,并且对英国新异教的兴起进行了出色的分析。 主角是一名警察,警长Howie(由爱德华·伍德沃德饰演),他出现在苏格兰西海岸附近的一个偏远岛屿上,调查一名12岁女孩的失踪。 到来后不久,Howie中士是一位虔诚的基督徒,还是一位处女,准备订婚并表现为要参加圣餐,他面临着席卷整个岛上的猖decade的性decade废。 在酒店侍应生(由布里特·埃克兰饰演)试图诱惑他时,他与诱惑进行了长期斗争,豪伊警长毫不犹豫地解释说,他代表着岛民显然已放弃的基督教社会秩序。 每当他试图完成某件事或获得关键信息时,岛民就会将他引荐给Summerisle勋爵(克里斯托弗·李扮演),后者是岛上所有权威的源头。 豪伊警长在前往萨默伊斯尔城堡的途中,注意到许多妇女在他的住所中的田野里赤裸跳舞,跳过了火堆。 场景就在Euripedes的 巴查,这对霍伊中士也有类似的后果。霍伊中士现已清楚地与底比斯统治者Pentheus保持了联系,后者在狄俄尼索斯的到来后必须恢复秩序,诱使这些妇女离开织布机,在山腰裸身跳舞。 但是,豪伊警长还是个俄狄浦斯人物,因为他决心找出造成女孩失踪的原因,无论后果如何。 就像遭受瘟疫的俄狄浦斯的底比斯一样,萨默西尔也经历过歉收。 在萨默尼斯尔勋爵的维多利亚式思想自由的祖父介绍了科学的耕作原则,更重要的是,异教之后,该岛成为了农业强国。 每年,当地人都做出动物牺牲,但是当庄稼收成不好时,众神需要人类牺牲,这意味着在这种情况下,失踪的女孩罗文·莫里森(Rowan Morrison)被Howie中士找到了。

Howie’s plans to leave the island before the May Day celebration are thwarted when the natives disable his seaplane. Instead of leaving, Howie dons the costume of a fool and takes part in the procession to the sea, where the human sacrifice is to take place. There he finds Rowan, but in his attempt to save her he discovers that she was the bait in a trap which got laid for him as its intended victim. Sergeant Howie is then trussed up and put inside the Wicker Man, which goes up in flames.

Aster got the ending of midsommar异教徒, but the related issues of loss of faith in Scotland, the collapse of that country’s Protestant state church, and the neo-paganism which filled the cultural vacuum after that collapse, also had relevance for Sweden, where the Lutheran state church had lost its hold on Swedish culture, creating a vacuum that was being filled at the time of the film with Islam and white nationalism, in reaction to the hundreds of thousands of Syrian refugees which flooded the country as a result of the United States’ ill-fated attempt to topple the Assad regime.

In 2015, Sweden took in more refugees than Germany precipitating a political crisis that is now raging in both countries. At this point, what began as a spiritual crisis in the previous generation became a racial crisis, and Malmo became, in Brexit party leader Nigel Farage’s words, “the rape capital of Europe.”[4] Sensing that the Lutheran state church had lost its ability to defend Swedish culture from the migration invasion, Swedes turned to racial identity politics, which inevitably led them to a valorization of Sweden’s pre-Christian past. Like Nietzsche, who made his own contribution to the resurgence of pagan ideology in Germany, Swedes began to wonder whether the Protestant version of Christianity they had grown up with had feminized and weakened them, rendering them incapable of defending their women and their culture. Do the Christians care about the fate of Sweden’s women, or have they been emasculated by a Gospel which urges them to turn the other cheek as their sisters are being raped by Muslims and Africans? After witnessing the degeneration of Lutheranism into a religion that seemingly condoned the rape of Swedish women, Swedes began looking for an alternative. Neopaganism arrived in Sweden on the heels of racial identity politics when it became clear that the state church could no longer provide the spiritual authority which was necessary to enforce the social order. The first place where the social order breaks down is in the realm of sexuality, because hedonism is what people use to replace the sense of meaning after they lose faith in Christ. Liberated sexuality, as Pentheus discovered when Dionysos arrived and the women of Thebes left their looms, invariably leads to social chaos, and social chaos leads ultimately to death. 异教徒 makes it clear that Scotland is no exception to the rule. midsommar tries to make the same point in its incoherent way. The return of sexual license, which is the engine driving neo-paganism in Europe, leads inexorably to death, first of all because abortion is the natural sequel which follows the removal of sexuality from marriage, but secondly because the fertility cults which were the basis for European paganism were invariably bound up with human sacrifice. Lord Summerisle hints at this, but Sergeant Howie learns the full story by doing some research at the local library, and then as the representative of the Christian state decides to do something about it.

Aster’s film is a combination of personal anguish, fascination with horror films, and Hollywood’s penchant to re-make dependable money earners. midsommar may have been Aster’s way of “working through my breakup,” but the opening credits claim that the original concept came from two Swedes, Patrik Andersson and Martin Karlqvist,[5] who approached Aster with an idea for a Swedish-set folk-horror tale. Andersson and Karlqvist claim that all of the details regarding the rituals depicted in the movie have “at least some basis in historical fact.”[6] The oversized mallet used to finish off the botched attempt at euthanasia depicted in the film was based on a replica of the mallet which Aster and his Swedish collaborators saw in a museum in Stockholm. The scene showing the two septuagenarians jumping off the cliff to their deaths was based, according to Aster, on customs in practice “not so long ago for elderly people. . . . So it’s true, all of it. And that’s the scary part.”

Claiming that neo-paganism is scary because it involves human sacrifice is understandably something that neo-pagans might find annoying. Swedish White Nationalist Henrik Palmgren at Red Ice did not like midsommar, calling it “a hate movie” as well as an example of “racial discrimination against people of — especially Nordic heritage, but white people in general.”[7] Lana Lokteff at Red Ice took offence at the movie’s portrayal of neo-paganism, calling the movie “another attack on an ancient, beautiful European tradition.”[8] In spite of its flaws, midsommar convincingly makes the point that human sacrifice isn’t beautiful, but both of Aster’s Swedish collaborators argue that the human sacrifice scenes in midsommar are based on solid historical evidence, and the historical sources back them up in their claim. Peter Cowie mentions the chronicle of Adam of Bremen, who claims that Uppsala was “at the center of bloodcurdling sacrifices during certain periods of the year.”[9] Both the Sagas and Adam of Bremen claim that human sacrifices were offered at Swedish pagan temples.[10]

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According to Adam, the temple at Uppsala was the centre for the national worship of the gods, and every nine years a great festival was held there where the attendance of all inhabitants of the Swedish provinces was required, including Christians. At these festivals men and male animals were sacrificed by hanging. Adam recounts from Christian eyewitness accounts that up to 72 corpses could be seen hanging in the trees next to the temple during these sacrifices.[11]

The wounds on the bog bodies unearthed near Portlaoise and elsewhere in Ireland led Ned Kelly, keeper of antiquities at the National Museum of Ireland, to conclude that they were also victims of ritual human sacrifice. Kelly claims that “the Celts performed human sacrifice as part of their religious rituals” elsewhere in Europe as well. Wherever Druids occupied “the religious social class, they almost certainly would have participated in human sacrifices, and probably officiated at them.” This claim has been substantiated by Roman accounts as well:

Experts say that Druids in the Celtic era possibly committed ritual human sacrifice on a mass scale. Julius Caesar, who led the first Roman landing in 55 BC, said the native Celts believed that gods delighted in the slaughter of prisoners and criminals, and when the supply of captives ran short, they sacrificed even the innocent.[12]

The collapse of Protestant state churches in Europe created a vacuum, which we all know is abhorrent to nature. Sex is the bait that leads the inhabitants of formerly Protestant countries like Sweden and Scotland into the trap of neo-paganism. The director of 异教徒 makes this perfectly clear with a few strokes of cinematic artistry. Appalled by the bawdy atmosphere of the pub where he is staying, Segeant Howie goes out for some fresh air and a change of scene only to find couples copulating in the dark. The church he visits in the morning is in ruins, but, as if to show the spiritual ruin which flowed from the collapse of the church, the director shows a naked woman sitting on one of the graves in the church yard.

The same situation is to be found in midsommar, but only if the viewer knows where to look after having watched 异教徒. Months after the death of Dani’s sister and parents, Christian still doesn’t know what his thesis is, but sitting in Mark and Josh’s apartment, which is “essentially a stoner’s den crossed with a serious anthropologist’s home,” he slowly warms to the idea of an anthropological field trip to Sweden, where he can observe ancient rituals in a small “incestuous” community. After Christian, Dani and the stoner anthropology students arrive in Sweden, Mark is struck by how attractive Swedish women are. “What is it that makes them hotter?” he wonders.

The short answer to that question is social engineering. But to explain that angle we must once again depart from the film. In 1955, a journalist by the name of Joe David Brown wrote an article for 时间 magazine, which was then the information ministry for the CIA, explaining that “in modern Sweden sociology has become a religion in itself, and birth control, abortion and promiscuity—especially among the young—are recognized as inalienable rights.”[13] Brown’s article was part of a multi-national conspiracy to strike down obscenity laws in which figures in the United States and Sweden played key roles.

In the late 1930s, roughly a decade before it got taken over by Alger Hiss, the notorious Soviet spy, the Carnegie foundation brought the Swedish socialist Gunnar Myrdal to the United States to write a book on racism. In 1942, Myrdal’s book 美国的困境 rolled off the presses in the United States to universal acclaim, which is unsurprising considering its source in America’s psychological warfare establishment. Myrdal’s book purported to be about America’s racial problem, about which he knew nothing when he was recruited to write the book, but in reality 美国的困境 was about the advent of social engineering in America as part of a collaboration between the elites of Sweden and the United States which targeted the populations of both countries. Socialism was the answer to loss of faith among the Swedish elites because socialism could bring about heaven on earth via the social engineering which Gunnar Myrdal praised in America.

By the time the anthropology students arrive there, Sweden has moved along the inevitable cultural trajectory which leads from sexual liberation to death. Between 1973 and 2013, all porno films became horror films. And so instead of the ongoing orgy which Sergeant Howie witnessed on Summerisle, “Christian” sees a tree full of dead boars with flies buzzing around them, reminiscent of Adam of Bremen’s description and the central scene in Golding’s . The Americans are then offered a bag of magic mushrooms by their Swedish hosts, and after some hesitation Dani takes one and wanders off into the woods, where she has her own psychedelic epiphany. After seeing ants eating a dead rabbit in the woods, she tells Christian: “Nothing means anything. We’re just alone.” To which, the ever-clueless Christian says, “You’re having a bad trip. You think you’re alone because you made yourself alone. We’re all one. Those are the good things you’re supposed to think about when you trip. We’re all unified. Fuck.”

The American anthropologists then arrive at the “small village” which is their ultimate destination: “The scene is Utopic” [sic]. After being greeted by “about a hundred people” standing on the grass, “dressed like Amish people, but less formal,” the Americans are gradually initiated into Swedish paganism. In the ‘70s this would have meant sex then death, but in this era it means death first then sex. After watching two elderly Swedes jump off a cliff to their deaths, the Americans get harangued by Siv, the female leader of the cult, who explains their justification for euthanasia: “Instead of growing old and getting sick and dying in pain and shame and fear, we’ll give our life – as a gesture. Yes? A gift. And we will leave this chapter with dignity and gratitude. Before it can spoil.”

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Not sure whether he buys Siv’s explanation of why two Swedes just died, Christian mulls her speech over while munching on a meat pie which is really a love potion made of pubic hair and menstrual blood. Which leads, of course, to sex. Sensing the connection between sex and death, Dani decides that it’s time to return to New York: “No, Christian: this is pagan nature worship. This is completely backwards. We shouldn’t be here.” Ever the anthropologist, Christian counters by saying that “we need to acclimate.” But Dani continues to insist: “I want to leave.”

Christian is in no hurry to leave because he now finally knows what his thesis is. He is also in the process of going native. When Pelle, the Swede who has lured them into this trap, tells him, “I think my sister Maja has taken a liking to you,” he is suggesting in a not-so-subtle way that Christian make a contribution to the depleted, incestuous, neo-pagan Swedish gene pool. For some reason Dani doesn’t like this idea and continues to insist that they return to the safe confines of New York City. “New York is fun,” Pelle admits,

My pilgrimage has been fun. New York is fun. But I also find it terrifying how people live. As if it’s necessary and even good to be lost and drifting … and I haven’t spent one night over there that I haven’t longed to be back here…in the lap of the Hårgas. Stay, Dani. Please. It will be good …. And I swear we’re all finished sacrificing animals.

When Swedish neo-pagans say things like this in horror movies, you’re not supposed to feel relieved. Eventually, Pelle persuades Dani to remain so that she can become a part of the family she deserves, a statement which can also be taken in a number of different ways.

以上皆是 异教徒midsommar are about the aftermath of the crisis of faith which swept through the Protestant countries of Europe during the second half of the 20th century. The decay of Protestantism led to socialism. If Protestantism was Christianity without the Church, socialism was Christianity without Christ. Socialism led to social engineering, which led to the collapse of sexual morality, and the collapse of sexual morality led to white nationalism, when the next generation realized that their culture was defenseless against foreign invasion. White nationalism then led to a return to paganism, which invariably involved human sacrifice.

[...] This is just an excerpt from Culture Wars Magazine, not the full article. To continue reading, purchase the July/August, 2019 edition of Culture Wars Magazine.

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• 类别: 艺术/信件, 思想 •标签: 电影, 色情 
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