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海地前总统让-克洛德·杜瓦利埃(Jean-Claude Duvalier)上周在太子港因心脏病发作去世,享年 63 岁。

他没有悲伤。

海地有传言说,可怕的已故独裁者弗朗索瓦·杜瓦利埃(Francois Duvalier)的儿子“老爹”(Papa Doc)死于该国一位主要的“houngan”或伏都教领主的致命诅咒。 许多海地人说,甜蜜的报复。

在 1960 年代中期,我和我的老朋友 Tijo Noustas 在年轻时的鲁莽驱使下,在海地的故宫吃晚饭。 我们遇到了当时还是个小孩的 Baby Doc,并与 Papa Doc 本人进行了非常非常可怕的遭遇。 我仍然记得他那厚厚的可乐瓶眼镜和阴险的耳语声。

Papa Doc 以超自然的恐惧和恐怖相结合的方式统治着海地 10 万不幸的人民。 杜瓦利埃曾经是一名朴素的乡村医生,后来成为海地的主要巫毒教徒。 海地人相信他可以把自己变成乌鸦、施咒、复活死者并远距离杀人。

如果海地人还没有被伏都教魔法吓倒,那么 Papa Doc 有他可怕的准军事暴徒,TonTon Macoutes(克里奥尔语中的怪物)。 全副武装的 TTM 从头到脚穿着蓝色牛仔布,恐吓海地人,绑架嫌疑人,并对路人征收“街头税”。 我与 TTM 有过无数次的冲突,都是濒死体验。

Papa Doc 是一个偏执的怪物,他经常让他的敌人,无论是真实的还是想象的,都向涂成黄色的迪曼奇堡开枪。 处决是通过电台直播的。

无论多么残酷,杜瓦利埃都得到了华盛顿的支持,华盛顿担心古巴式的海地接管。 卡斯特罗的古巴距离海地只有 80 公里,穿过战略性的迎风航道,与海地的地狱相比,它看起来就像天堂。

当 Duvalier 于 1971 年去世时,他的胖子、114 公斤重的儿子 Jean-Claude 被 TonTon Macoutes、富有的混血儿商业精英和山姆大叔作为傀儡掌权。 他是一个悲惨的生物,害怕自己的影子,像许多海地人一样害怕帕帕·多克会像邪恶的巫毒神,萨梅迪男爵一样从坟墓里复活。

混血儿和 TTM 继续掠夺海地微薄的资源,而其他 99% 的人几乎挨饿,饱受寄生虫、伤寒、梅毒和只有在中非才知道的疾病的折磨,海地农村很像。 太子港,曾经是一座迷人的殖民城市,变成了垃圾和成群结队的病态乞丐的污水池。

许多海地人认为 1915-1934 年,海地被美国海军陆战队占领和管理的时代,是他们悲惨历史中唯一幸福的时期,并希望美国军队能够回归。

在 1780 年代,当时是法国奴隶殖民地的海地是西半球最富有的国家,其中包括西班牙产金银的拉丁美洲殖民地。 那个时代的今天石油财富的版本每年有四种作物——可可、染料、香料、糖、咖啡和烟草——涌入法国。 波尔多和南特建立在西印度群岛贸易和奴隶制的收入之上。

立即订购

然后是 1791 年和 1804 年的奴隶起义,甚至赶走了拿破仑的老兵。 像 Toussaint L'Overture 和 JJ Dessalines 这样能干的奴隶领袖很快就被傻瓜和智力缺陷所取代,最后是疯狂的皇帝亨利克里斯托夫,他最终在 Cap Hatien 外用银弹射杀了自己。 白人被屠杀。 海地被释放的奴隶无情地砍伐树木以制造木炭。 大雨冲走海地肥沃的表土,留下侵蚀和饥荒,这是该半球最严重的环境、社会和政治灾难。 海地成为西半球最贫穷的国家。

无能的婴儿医生和他美丽的混血儿妻子米歇尔终于在 1986 年被赶出海地,带着一箱箱现金。 他们在巴黎流放,然后是格拉斯。 各种无能的领导人取代了年轻的杜瓦利埃,其中包括一位马克思主义前牧师 JBAristide,后者又被一场美国策划的政变废黜并被运往南非。

作为最后的痛苦,2011 年的一场大地震摧毁了海地的大部分地区,造成数万人甚至上百万人死亡,没人知道。 来自尼泊尔的联合国“救援”部队传播霍乱; 其他联合国部队向女孩支付了 1 美元的性服务费用。

Baby Doc 的妻子 Michel 把所有的钱都花在了购物上,宣布她要离开他。 “你不能那样做,”他恳求道,“我是海地总统”

她嘶嘶地回道:“我嫁给了海地总统; 你现在是个无名小卒!” 走了。

Baby Doc 终于回到海地,并声称他将面临大规模谋杀和种族灭绝的指控。 他从来没有。 许多海地人都知道,可怜的小博士不是怪物,只是他可怕的父亲和怕老婆的丈夫的隐约反映。 杜瓦利埃二世更值得同情而不是报应。

因此,上周,随着海地继续陷入贫困、疾病和绝望的深渊,他在太子港的悲伤生活逐渐消逝。

(从重新发布 EricMargolis.com 经作者或代表的许可)
 
• 类别: 对外政策 •标签: 海地 
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  1. Cuba is heaven? Maybe for bootlicking Anglo journalists who go there to kiss the regime’s ass. No doubt they treated you very well. All journalists love powerful thugs.

    As for the people of Cuba, why should you care? Your job is to fellate those who speak power to truth.

    Choke it down, kiddo.

    By the way, Haiti is like Central Africa for the same reason Wisconsin is like Skandinavia, and the same reason you can count on a golden retriever to have the personality traits of a golden retriever.

    Show me an exception. I’ll be waiting.

    • 回复: @Vendetta
  2. Anonymous • 免责声明 说:

    海地。

    Voodoo. AIDS. Endless boatloads of illegal migrants. That’s about all that can be said of the place after 200+ years. Haiti is the way it is for the same reason sub-Saharan Africa is the way it is (though nobody will admit this).

    Btw, Napoleon’s veteran troops were not driven out by Haitians. They were killed off by diseases.

  3. Vendetta 说:
    @Lars Grobian

    “Compared to Haitian Hell”
    “Compared to Haitian Hell”
    “Compared to Haitian Hell”

    Next to Haiti or Central Africa, yes, Cuba is heaven.

    For Christ’s sake, Grus, read.

    Paul Kagame is your exception of a comptent, responsible leader in Central Africa. I pray he manages to find some sort of decent successor, or Rwanda’s going right back to hell as soon as he’s gone.

    • 回复: @jtgw
    , @Ed
  4. jtgw 说:

    tl;dr: Haiti was a decent enough place to live while whites were in charge, but whenever they were left to their own devices, black Haitians turned the country into just another sub-Saharan African backwater.

    我有什么想念的吗?

  5. jtgw 说:
    @Vendetta

    Basically, even with the dumbest ideology imaginable, Cuba manages not to be the worst-run country in the Western Hemisphere simply by virtue of having whites at the helm.

    Paul Kagame is not really an exception when you realize that he and fellow Tutsis have a fair amount of Caucasian in them. He looks more Ethiopian than Bantu. To the racists among us it’s not at all surprising that he’d manage to run his country half-way competently.

    I really, really want to know of more actual cases where full-blooded Negroes manage to govern themselves at least to a middle-income standard of living. Everyone keeps saying “Botswana”, but that’s like the only example I ever hear.

    • 回复: @Vendetta
  6. Anonymous • 免责声明 说:

    Haiti is Africa, more precisely sub-Saharan Africa. If a little piece of Africa broke off and floated across the Atlantic, it would be basically the same. Actually, as amazing as it sounds, Haiti is not that bad a place, by sub-Saharan African standards, which is the only realistic comparison. Twenty-two countries in sub-Saharan Africa are poorer then Haiti. This difference may be explained by the small mulatto population Haiti has. In any case it is hardly surprising that no Haitians took up the offer from Senegal to “return to the mother country” after the earthquake a few years ago. When Haitians skip out, they don’t go to Africa. They go to the USA.

    • 回复: @jtgw
  7. Vendetta 说:
    @jtgw

    Yeah…got nothing to counter otherwise when you exclude the Nilotics from the equation. Ghana, I suppose, is the one that seems most economically enterprising and diversifying right now, if they keep that up for ten years they’ll be getting somewhere. Even Botswana seems a poor example as it’s basically an empty country with a mineral jackpot….I doubt the living standards are much higher for ordinary people there, or they’d be getting an immigrant flood from Zimbabwe and other hell hole countries.

    • 回复: @jtgw
  8. jtgw 说:
    @Anonymous

    Exactly. Anytime some guy complains of racism in the US or another Western country, I just want to say “You know, there are plenty of countries ruled by your kind of people where I’m sure you’d not suffer so much discrimination. Oh, they’re complete shitholes and you wouldn’t dream of moving there? I wonder why that is…”

  9. jtgw 说:
    @Vendetta

    Hm well I wish the best for Ghana. It would be nice if they could break this stereotype some day.

  10. Anonymous • 免责声明 说:

    Haitians have had more then two full centuries to get their act together and have accomplished absolutely nothing.

  11. Rootman 说:

    Many racist comments here. I was 2 weeks in Haiti 2 years ago as a tourist. I was very impressed by the patient, industrious and peaceful nature of the people. And the very rich culture. The vodou religion is perhaps the only one on earth where gods and godesses are equal!

  12. Ozymandias 说:
    @Rootman

    “I was very impressed by the patient, industrious and peaceful nature of the people. And the very rich culture.”

    I believe “vibrant” is the term you’re looking for.

  13. jtgw 说:
    @Rootman

    I think that’s the case with a lot of primitive cultures and people: they are actually very friendly and warm-hearted and generous and all sorts of other good qualities. The problem is that this isn’t enough for a functioning industrialized nation: you also need intelligence, future-oriented thinking and a degree of self-control that these people don’t have. That’s why they’re so poor and disorganized. Ideally, they’d allow their public affairs be managed by those with the brains to do so, i.e. whites, though the Chinese seem to be filling the role in much of Africa these days. Then, they can continue to be wonderful and vibrant without incurring the ill consequences.

    • 回复: @Rootman
  14. Rootman 说:
    @jtgw

    To call Haitian culture primitive is very primitive.

    Haiti is one of the most raped countries in the world. There is one hill, with incredible mansions and palaces, where the families live who own 95 % of all the land and recources.

    • 回复: @jtgw
    , @Anonymous
  15. jtgw 说:
    @Rootman

    I don’t get it. Was that supposed to prove that Haiti does not have a primitive culture?

    By primitive I mean things like this: how much does your average Haitian plan for the future? What kind of organization does the community have and what efforts do they make to keep themselves clean and tidy? Here’s a very simply measure: are the streets filled with trash? Even if there is no official state body overseeing garbage disposal, I would say an advanced culture would figure out a way of keeping the streets sanitary.

  16. Anonymous • 免责声明 说:
    @Rootman

    Your right sport. VooDoo is a wonderful “religion” and an equal-opportunity player as well! Haitians are also industrious too. When i go to a store all i see are “made in Haiti” items. And if you find Haitian culture “very rich” well, each to his own. That’s about all you’ll find “very rich” about the place.

    Btw, if you think spending two weeks in a country as a pampered and sheltered tourist, gives you an accurate read of it and its history, you are truly gullible.

  17. Anonymous • 免责声明 说:
    @Rootman

    BUT Haiti has been exclusively black occupied and black run for over 200 years after just about every single white person was killed there. So if it is being “raped” it is by the Haitians themselves.

  18. Anonymous • 免责声明 说:
    @Rootman

    “Many racist comments here”.

    What has been said that is factually inaccurate? Haiti is virtually a 100% black country. It has been that way for over 200 years. It is also abysmally poor and backward. It is a black occupied and black ruled s***hole. Why is pointing out facts “racist”?

  19. jtgw 说:

    Advanced cultures make use of their independence to forge ahead and improve themselves. Germany suffered catastrophic losses in WWII, but bounced back afterwards because their culture allowed this to happen. Yes, the Americans poured aid in, but America has also poured aid into Africa, where it’s been squandered.

    You point to hideous inequality as a cause of Haitian poverty. I do not doubt it, but again, that’s an indictment of Haitian culture as a whole. What causes the inequality? They’ve had so many chances to work things out for themselves, but they continue in the same vein. America is not occupying the country or forcing the poor to give up their wealth to the rich: that’s the work of Haitians themselves, both the upper-class that is exploiting them, and the lower class that hasn’t figured out a way of changing the situation. By contrast, look at countries like Japan that, all on their own, transformed themselves from an isolated and primitive feudalism to a modern capitalist nation.

    • 回复: @colm
  20. Rootman 说:

    I was not a pampered tourist, but stayed with a local family. (Best way of traveling in Haiti for single men: find a Haitiana in a DR beach town: she is the perfect guide, interpreter and will love to see her family- everybody wins). Due to incompatibility of my ATM card I happened to have very little money. So no running water, rice and some beans with fruit. Trip is not cheap: One tends to spend much more than planned on the family and their friends if one sees their extreme poverty (once back in the DR).

    The biggest problem is this ruling class, the UN ´peacekeeping´ force is to prevent an uprising. The ruling class is much lighter colored (´les mulattes´) than all other people.Another great problem is the absence of cooking gas: people cook on charcoal, which makes for deforestation. Hurricanes wreak havoc on the soil.

    Another problem are the evangelical churches, which introduce a totally alien culture and religion. The catholic church seems to be quite well adapted though (example: rum as holy water!)

    I have not been near the camps of the earthquake survivors. English is not my first language (´rich culture´). Of course one can only get a small impression in 2 weeks. It is almost a different planet.

  21. jtgw 说:

    How are evangelical churches a problem? In countries like Mexico, they’ve helped locals a lot in developing better habits that help them rise out of poverty. I’m sorry but the old Protestant stereotype of Catholic countries as backward has a lot of truth in it. I hope evangelicalism spreads in Haiti; it might improve things a bit.

  22. colm 说:

    No reason to weep for ‘poor’ Haiti who is responsible for the downfall of Napoleon. Touissant L’Overture, one of the most evil person ever lived, is now honored in France’s Pantheon. Does America honor Tecumseh, Black Hawk or Crazy Horse?

    Touissant is also responsible for America gobbling up the Mississippi basin.

    And they shat all over in that resource-rich island.

    The Haitians only have themselves to blame for their misery.

    The president of haiti, plus any possible descendant of Touissant, have to kneel at Napoleon’s tomb at the Invalides to repent what they did to him.

    • 回复: @Vendetta
  23. colm 说:
    @jtgw

    @乔纳森

    German could rise again after WWI because it still kept resource-rich Silesia.

    Now Silesia is under Polish rule and Germany remains a faithful watchdog of Washington.

    The moment America leaves Germany, Silesia will break away from Poland.

  24. Anonymous • 免责声明 说:

    Most comments here are dumb, made by sheltered people who haven’t traveled outside of North America or Europe.

    Much of Haiti is pleasant. Outside of Port au Prince and the second largest city, the towns are clean and orderly. One seaside town on the south coast was the cleanest third world town I’ve ever seen–spotless. People had little fear of crime and were out walking alone at all hours.

    It’s a very artistic culture. Probably nowhere else in the world is there more public art per square km. On the city streets during the day, people are painting, selling art, playing music, possessed by voodoo gods, driving elaborately decorated shared taxis, etc. Quite remarkable how poor it is but how many people engaged in design and music over there.

    And there’s still a lot of forest left, no matter the environmental difficulties with out of control forest clearing, it’s still green in the countryside.

    • 回复: @jtgw
    , @Ed
  25. jtgw 说:
    @Anonymous

    Thanks for those details. The lack of crime and the clean streets that you saw certainly suggest a better culture than my impression gave me. I’m just going by the general descriptions of the place that I have encountered but if they are inaccurate I’m glad to admit it.

  26. Vendetta 说:
    @colm

    Yes, America does honor the Indian war chiefs that fought against it.

    Napoleon was responsible for the downfall of Napoleon. He invaded Russia and stuck around through wintertime.

    Toussaint’s rebellion produced a miserable failed state in the end, but I respect him for fighting back against those that enslaved him.

  27. Jefferson 说:

    “Haiti is virtually a 100% black country.”

    Haiti is so Black that that even a light skin Dominican Mulato like Alex Rodriguez would stick out like a sore thumb there.

    Haitians are the New World Blacks who on average have the least amount of Caucasian blood.

  28. We met Baby Doc, who was just a little kid back then, and had a very, very scary encounter with Papa Doc Himself. I still recall his coke-bottle thick glasses and sinister, whispering voice.

    Sounds like Peter Lorre playing Mr. Moto.

  29. Anonymous • 免责声明 说:

    Haitians believed he could turn himself into a crow, lay spells, raise the dead and kill at long distance.

    How in heaven’s name could anyone think these people are mentally capable of democratic rule?

    As a white Kenyan told me decades ago, “when the majority of voters believes that a candidate can become invisible, fly through the sky at limitless speeds, and peek over your shoulder in the voting booth (or read your mind), there ain’t no such thing as a ‘secret’ ballot.”

    • 回复: @Rootman
  30. Rootman 说:
    @Anonymous

    ´How in heaven’s name could anyone think these people are mentally capable of democratic rule?´

    So we are? Believers in the cult of neoliberalism and neoconservatism: privatization, austerity, a rigged election system by plutocrats and lobbyists, iPnotized by MSM and blindly, instinctively responding to their fear and demonization campaigns?

    Who is doing the magical thinking?

  31. Ed 说:
    @Vendetta

    Félix Houphouët-Boigny of the Ivory Coast wasn’t bad either.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A9lix_Houphou%C3%ABt-Boigny

    • 回复: @colm
  32. Ed 说:
    @Rootman

    Man some people really have gone over the deep end with this equality stuff. So their gods have gender equality, big deal. How does any of that keep people fed, clothed and sheltered?

    Get a grip man.

  33. Ed 说:
    @Anonymous

    Quite remarkable how poor it is but how many people engaged in design and music over there.

    It’s not remarkable at all, art doesn’t feed people outside of a select few. Maybe that’s the problem they are all engaged in art and not activities that generate trade and increases wealth. As far as the lack of crime makes sense no one has much to steal.

  34. Harold 说:

    When someone describes a people as having a ‘rich culture’, ask them for an example of a people who, by their reckoning, don’t have a rich culture. After all, it makes the term meaningless to call something rich unless it is in comparison to other not-so-rich things.

    • 回复: @Rootman
  35. Harold 说:

    I thought Haitian art was probably crap so I looked some up on the web. It is not that bad. Little of it I saw had any subtlety in colour palette, being mosty composed of highly saturated colours, but that’s a matter of taste.

  36. Rootman 说:
    @Harold

    ´Rich culture´: Very few! apart from the traditional cultures I can think of Tibet, Timbuktu, some Hindu, Taoist and Buddhist traditions, and perhaps some Christian, Sufi and some humanist branches. And science + philosophy of course!

  37. colm 说:
    @Ed

    <Félix Houphouët-Boigny of the Ivory Coast wasn’t bad either.

    Felix Whoophee-Boynee is probably going to be remembered as the builder of a \$300 million cathedral in the middle of jungle near his hometown.

    Incidentally now it is being maintained by some hapless Polish priests.

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